Cancer treatments can vary widely depending on the type and the stage of the tumor. In many cases surgical resection of a well confined tumor is pursed, followed by chemical and/or physical treatments of the organ. Temperatures above 50 °C induce cell necrosis, denature enzymes, promote functional changes to DNA and RNA, and rupture the cellular membrane releasing cellular content, ultimately leading to cell injury and death. We are developing, in collaboration with the group of P. Pallavicini (Univ. Pavia), new anistropic gold nanoparticles to induce thermal release by irradiation with near infrared laser. In collaboration with G. Baldi (Cericol) we are instead developing iron oxide nanoparticles to be used in radiofrequency treatment of cancerous tissues. A third project, in collaboration both with Cericol and Unipv, is devoted to the development of a molecular thermometer to monitor the temperature in situ during the radiation treatments.