Progetti internazionali

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MLHVP - Multi-Level measurement of the Hadron Vacuum Polarization in Lattice QCD.

The Standard Model of Particle Physics (SM) explains almost all results of all experiments conducted in laboratories on a huge variety of processes in the electroweak and strong interaction sectors. However, it is widely accepted that the SM cannot be the ultimate Leggi tutto theory of fundamental interactions because it provides no explanation for several phenomena in Nature. The experimental measurement of the muon anomalous magnetic moment �µ currently shows a discrepancy of about 4 standard deviations from the theoretical expectations of the SM. The largest contribution to the theoretical uncertainty comes from the Hadron Vacuum Polarization (HVP) whose first principles, non-perturbative computation can be performed only by Monte Carlo simulations of lattice QCD. However, state of the art techniques have difficulty to further increase the numerical accuracy, which could only be achieved with unfeasibly large amounts of computer time. This project aims at measuring the HVP with an unprecedented precision, exploiting an innovative and very powerful multi-level algorithm. We expect that our method will become the standard for Monte Carlo studies of correlations functions in lattice QCD; the outcomes of this study will enable a lattice QCD determination of HVP to impact the SM prediction for �µ for the first time

Responsabili: GIUSTI LEONARDO
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Bando: PRACE 20th Call for Proposals for Project Access
Enti finanziatori: FORSCHUNGSZENTRUM JULICH GMBH

Precision measurement of the quark-coupling strength Vub

Responsabili: CALVI MARTA
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Enti finanziatori: SWISS NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION (SNSF)

ZEPRION II - Crystallization of a Protein Folding Intermediate Bound to its Inhibitor in Microgravity Conditions

One of the most promising directions in contemporary drug discovery research is based on targeting non-native proteins conformations (e.g. so–called cryptic pockets). In particular, authors involved in this proposal have been involved in conceiving and developing a novel paradigm called PPI-FIT (defined below), Leggi tutto which is based on hindering the folding of the target protein. This approach led to the discovery of SM875, a small molecule capable of selectively reducing the cellular levels of the human prion protein (PrP), the substrate of prions, infectious protein aggregates involved in several fatal incurable neurodegenerative diseases. A crucial piece of information required in the hit-to-lead optimization of cryptic pocket drug candidates (including SM875) is the atomic resolution of the structure of the binding pose. In conventional drug discovery efforts, this information could is obtained by X-ray crystallography or NMR experiments. Unfortunately, these techniques cannot provide the structure of unstable protein conformers, even when they are stabilized by the interaction with a small molecule, like SM875 does for PrP, because of their high aggregation propensity. Several recent studies have highlighted the unique advantage of performing protein crystallization in microgravity conditions1. The primary goal of this proposal is to define a roadmap to further develop such a space-based technology to achieve the crystallization of protein non-native conformers, by assaying different experimental protocols. Our experimental setup will be first tested in a pioneering experiment, included in the upcoming SpX27 space mission. The goal of the present proposal is to capitalize on the preliminary results generated by this first mission to further develop this technology, leading to a stable, scalable, and versatile protocol for crystallizing non-native protein conformers in microgravity conditions.

Responsabili: FACCIOLI PIETRO
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Bando: BSGN Life Science open call for proposals 2022
Enti finanziatori: European Space Agency

MiSS -Microwave Squeezing with Superconducting (meta)materials

The MiSS project targets transformative progress in the emerging field of distributed quantum sensing exploiting multi-mode microwave squeezing. The final goal is to realise a robust and scalable technology for microwave squeezing and generation of nonclassical microwave radiation based on superconducting Leggi tutto (meta)materials. The three specific objectives of the MiSS project are: 1) Technological innovation, investigating new material and scalable microfabrication approaches to optimise the building blocks to produce Travelling Wave Parametric Amplifiers-based squeezers; 2) Metrology protocols, developing dedicated cryogenic measurement protocols to accurately evaluate the radiation quantumness, opening the way to standardisation; 3) Realisation of a prototype for real world applications, developing a system with scalability potential for distributed quantum sensing in the microwave regime. A use-case dedicated to multi-parameter sensing for material characterisation will be targeted. The outcomes of this project will pave the way towards real exploitation of quantum-enhanced sensing techniques in the microwave regime. The MiSS consortium brings together a unique set of expertise in design, materials, metrology, fabrication, cryogenic characterisation and commercialisation to be able to deliver on this ambitious goal.

Responsabili: GIACHERO ANDREA
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Bando: Next generation quantum sensing and metrology technologies (RIA)
Enti finanziatori: EUROPEAN COMMISSION

PINGU-Pulsar timing array Inference of the Nanohertz Gravitational wave Universe

We are on the verge of the next big breakthrough in gravitational wave (GW) astronomy: namely the detection of a nano-Hz GW signal with Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTAs). Within the next few years nano-Hz GWs will be established as a completely Leggi tutto new window on our Universe, unlocking an unprecedented opportunity to unveil its secrets. The signal is anticipated to come from a cosmic population of supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs), which are a fundamental, yet observationally missing, piece in the process of structure formation and galaxy evolution. However, alternative Early Universe origins, including backgrounds arising from inflation or phase transitions, cannot be dismissed a priori. To exploit the scientific breakthrough potential of this new window we need an innovative, robust framework to build our way forward in uncharted territory. A framework that allows us to establish the nature of the nano-Hz GW signal and understand its implications for astrophysics and cosmology. PINGU is this framework; it is a concerted multimessenger project for connecting the GW and electromagnetic (EM) Universe in a novel way. On the one hand, it will leverage on the 15-year long expertise of the PI in PTA observations, data analysis and signal characterization to pin down the properties of the nano-Hz GW signal and characterize its features. On the other hand, it will exploit the most powerful all sky survey and state of the art galaxy formation models to construct a live nano-Hz GW map of our Universe and match it with the upcoming results of PTA observations. This will allow us to exploit the full potential of the nano-Hz GW sky, including: i) establishing the origin of the GW signal and probe its astrophysical nature, ii) gain unprecedented insights into the formation and evolution of SMBHBs and their role in galaxy formation, iii) identify SMBHBs and map their distribution in the Universe, iv) enable, for the first time, multimessenger astronomy in the nano-Hz GW band

Responsabili: SESANA ALBERTO
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Bando: ERC ADVANCED GRANTS 2023
Enti finanziatori: EUROPEAN COMMISSION

POEBLITA - Electroweak Bosons at the LHC with Improved Theoretical Accuracy

Extracting the polarisation of electroweak (EW) bosons from Large-Hadron-Collider (LHC) data represents a crucial step towards a deep understanding of the electroweak-symmetry-breaking (EWSB) mechanism realised in nature. Therefore, an accurate and realistic theoretical modelling is needed for polarised-boson production and decay in Leggi tutto relevant LHC processes. In order to improve the current theoretical accuracy for polarised-bosons processes and to enable direct comparisons with experimental data, this research aims at the inclusion of higher-order corrections in the strong and EW couplings through a matching of fixed-order predictions to parton-shower programs. This will be carried out within the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics, as well as in the presence of beyond-the-SM effects, allowing for broad phenomenological investigations of the EWSB and fostering the development of polarisation taggers (also using modern machine-learning techniques) that will be beneficial for upcoming LHC analyses.

Responsabili: RE EMANUELE
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Bando: MSCA Postdoctoral Fellowships 2023
Enti finanziatori: EUROPEAN COMMISSION

POLOCALC - POLarization Orientation CALibrator for Cosmology

I will enable groundbreaking results for cosmology and fundamental physics, thanks to a novel method for measuring the angle of the polarization plane of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons with unprecedented accuracy. Existing and planned CMB polarimeters looking for primordial B-mode Leggi tutto signals need an independent, experimental method for systematics control on the absolute polarization orientation. The lack of such a method limits the accuracy of the detection of inflationary gravitational waves, the efficiency in removing polarized foregrounds, the constraining power on the neutrino sector through measurements of gravitational lensing of the CMB, the possibility of detecting Cosmic Birefringence, and the ability to measure primordial magnetic fields. My 5-year project will dramatically improve instrumental accuracy by means of artificial calibration sources flying on aerial drones and tethered balloons, within sight of the most advanced ground CMB telescopes, operating at high-elevation angles and far-field distances. The calibrators will make use of linearly-polarized microwave emitters optimally coupled to the Simons Observatory (SO) polarization-sensitive detectors, the world-leading CMB project for the next years. The orientation of the source polarization plane will be registered to absolute celestial coordinates by star cameras and ground photogrammetry with arcminute accuracy. POLOCALC will take advantage of my leading role in SO, and will operate from its site in the Atacama Desert in Chile. This project will become a pivot for the field: any existing or future instrument in Atacama will be able to observe my novel polarization calibrator, and future projects will intercalibrate their detectors with the resulting calibrated observations of sky sources. POLOCALC will produce the first experimentally-calibrated data of the polarization angle of the CMB and its contaminants, allowing existing and future CMB polarimeters to fully mine the cosmic sky.

Responsabili: NATI FEDERICO
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Bando: ERC ADVANCED GRANTS 2022
Enti finanziatori: EUROPEAN COMMISSION

ProtoBH - Black hole spin and mass function in gaseous proto-clusters

Gravitational-wave (GW) Astronomy opened a new window to the Universe from its infant state to the present. The key physical systems which allow probing the Universe through these vast time and length scales are Black Holes (BH). Low metallicity clouds, composed primarily Leggi tutto of atomic hydrogen, before and during the epoch of reionization, are a natural environment for BHs to be born and form Binary Black Holes (BBH) which can merge via GW emission. Stellar BHs, being the remnants of the death of very massive stars, are generated early when a huge gas reservoir is available for accretion. Mass segregation leads the BHs close to the center of the system and a dense BH-subcluster, supported by gravitational fluctuations, is formed. The low metallicity of the gas suppresses cooling, while turbulence of the gas and the BHs’ motion further favor quasi-spherical accretion, surpassing the Eddington limit. For sufficiently compact configurations, the BHs shall grow in mass before the gas is depleted by stellar evolution and formation feedback processes. This rapid mass growth through turbulent hot accretion shall leave a distinct spin signature on the BHs. The BBH that accrete gas quasi-spherically may harden if there is not significant angular momentum loss from the system. Furthermore, these are also ideal conditions for high-redshift Intermediate Mass Black Holes (IMBH) to form. We shall calculate the spin distribution of stellar BHs accreting gas in proto-clusters, calculate the BH mass function following such accretion events, investigate the evolution of separation in accreting BBH in low-metallicity hot turbulent gas, develop theoretical models for the evolution of a BH-subcluster inside proto-clusters and investigate the formation of IMBH. Finally, we shall develop methods for identifying the origin of GW observations, confront our results with LIGO-Virgo-KAGRA data, and investigate synergetically the implications for the GW mission LISA and the X-ray mission Athena.

Responsabili: GEROSA DAVIDE
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Bando: MSCA Postdoctoral Fellowships 2023
Enti finanziatori: EUROPEAN COMMISSION

RES-NOVA - A revolutionary archaeological Pb observatory for astrophysical neutrino sources

One of the most energetic events in the Universe is the core-collapse Supernova (SN) where almost all the star's binding energy is released as neutrinos. These particles are direct probes of the processes occurring in the stellar core and provide unique Leggi tutto insights into the gravitational collapse and the neutrino properties. Currently, astroparticle physics is in need of SN observations and of a detection technique highly sensitive to all neutrino flavors. RES-NOVA will revolutionize how we detect neutrinos from astrophysical sources by deploying the first array of cryogenic detectors made from archaeological Pb. Neutrino detection in RES-NOVA is facilitated by the newly discovered Coherent Elastic neutrino-Nucleus Scattering (CEvNS). It enables the first measurement of the full SN neutrino signal, eradicating the uncertainties related to flavor oscillations. To fully exploit the advantages of CEvNS, RES-NOVA ennobles Pb from being a passive shielding to the most sensitive detector component. Pb has the highest cross-section, 10^4 times higher than all used detection channels, enabling the deployment of a cm-scale neutrino observatory. The unconventional approach of RES-NOVA is to use ultra-pure archaeological Pb and run it as a cryogenic detector with low-energy threshold (<1 keV) and unprecedented background (<0.001 c/ton/keV/s). These features also open new opportunities in multi-messenger astronomy, Dark Matter, and neutrino property studies. The success of my pioneer work in operating archaeological Pb-based cryogenic detectors is pivotal for RES-NOVA realization. RES-NOVA will survey 90% of the potential galactic SNe, with only a total detector volume of (30 cm)^3. Future detector upgrades will enhance our SN-sensitivity into the uncharted territory >1 Mpc and increase the SN observation rate. RES-NOVA has the potential to lay the foundations for a future generation of European neutrino telescopes, as all its SN neutrino detectors are currently going offline.

Responsabili: PATTAVINA LUCA MARIA
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Bando: ERC- Consolidator Grant - 2022
Enti finanziatori: EUROPEAN COMMISSION

SMARTHEP - Synergies between MAchine learning, Real Time analysis and Hybrid architectures for efficient Event Processing and decision making

Growing amounts of research data require new computing solutions to manage increased data storage, utilisation, and analysis capabilities. The EU-funded SMARTHEP project will break from the traditional paradigm of ‘first collect data, then analyse it’ and move towards real-time analysis Leggi tutto (RTA) where data collection and analysis become synonymous, so that unprocessed information that would be expensive to store can be discarded. As a consortium formed by academic and industrial partners on scientific, technological, and entrepreneurship aspects of RTA, the project will train a new generation of inter-sector researchers and give them the tools to process large datasets in real-time, aided by machine learning and hybrid computing architectures.

Responsabili: BORSATO MARTINO
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Bando: Innovative Training Networks
Enti finanziatori: EUROPEAN COMMISSION